Investment Valuation methods are applied to measure the economic worth of investment proposals or organizations. Methods include:

- Market Comparison Method
- Discounted Cash Flow Method
- Asset-Based Method
- Actual Earnings Method
- Option Pricing Method

This method is measured by market comparison and includes indicators like the price-to-earnings ratio (P/E Ratio) or the price-to-book value (P/B Value). If a similar firm commanded a P/E Ratio of, on parity with that of the target company, at 15x earnings and ten times its enterprise worth is one-two-thirds as dear. This is a method of DCF that determines to predict the future cash inflows and then discounts them at the appropriate rate for obtaining their present value. If the company expects to generate RMB 5 million in future cash flow and if it is discounted at a rate of 10%, one can estimate value-at-present for the company.

### Market Comparison Method

This particularly relates to the valuing of Target Company by comparing it well with the market value offered alongside companies that are similar in nature and operations. The most widely used method is based on known market data and valuation multiples (the average price-to-earnings ratio or P/E Ratio, the premium you would pay on a company’s tangible assets relative to its stock price).

One of the common metrics is the Price-to-Earnings Ratio( P/E ratio), a tool that allows us to gauge a company’s stock prices in relation to its earnings. If Company XYZ’s earnings per share is 5 yuan and its stock price is currently at 100 yuan, the P/E Ratio is simply the current multiple. If other firms in the same sector have P/E Ratios of 15 times earnings, any price significantly above that could be considered overpriced. Comparing P/E Ratios With Comparable Companies: This is where your active engagement comes in. If the target company and comparable companies share a similar business model and market conditions, your comparison of P/Es can provide valuable insights into the potential pricing of stock issuances.

Another nifty metric assesses the price-to-book ratio or P/B Ratio, which captures the market value of a stock compared to its book value. A firm with a per-share book value of 10 yuan and price at issue up to 50 yuan yields a P/B Ratio equal to 5. The P/B Ratio (Price-to-Book) is high as well, with similar companies already trading at 3, It may indicate that it might be on the higher side. The P/B Ratio can be a more useful gauge when assets need to be dramatically revalued or when the value of the company fluctuates frequently.

### Discounted Cash Flow Method

The DCF (discounted cash flow) approach, meanwhile, calculates the value of a company by forecasting its future cash flows and then discounting them to their present number. This process involves discounting future cash flows — a concept known as the time value of money, where receiving $100 today is worth more than getting $101 in twelve months.

The most important part of the DCF is projecting future cash flows. In the case of stable growth in historical cash flows, Horizontal Analysis is made based on 3 months to predict future trends and company strategy. In this case, if we believe a company will have consistent CF from operations growth in the next 5 years, then the simple DCF method allows us to estimate the present value of these future cash flows and hence derive the total enterprise value of that business.

The discount rate, a crucial factor in the DCF method, is often derived from the cost of capital or market risk associated with the company. The discount rate, then, is lower for a company whose cost of operating in the market environment in which it operates remains relatively stable over time and higher if that market risk is high. This approach incorporates management’s forecasts for future profit and risk, so it relies heavily on accurate forecasting.

### Asset-Based Method

This is where the asset-based valuation method comes into play, which calculates value by considering a company’s assets and to-be-paid debts. This practice is especially important for companies with lots of fixed assets — including real estate (and even manufacturers).

The initial step of the asset-based method is evaluating assets. For example, a 50 million yuan of fixed inventory and equipment assets less liabilities party to repay the standard shall have a net worth is 30 million. While this takes a very clear look at the value of assets, it may need to include how profitable those become in the future should liquidation/reorganization occur in your company.

The asset-based method plays a pivotal role in determining the Net Asset Value, particularly after liquidation in cases like company bankruptcy. By factoring in these costs, a more realistic value of what an acquirer would get if it were to liquidate the company and sell off its assets can be determined, providing a practical and reassuring application of the method.

### Actual Earnings Method

A basis for estimating the value of an agreement that is built on historical performance, which normally relates to more steady and mature companies. This method estimates future earnings based on historical data to later deduce company value.

The actual earnings method is based on historical earning data. Taking one example, if a company has an annual average net profit of 10 million yuan in the last three years, we can use peer pricing based on similar earnings multiples to estimate the value of this target company. While historical earnings set a floor, they may represent little of the growth prospects.

One limitation of the actual earnings method is that it ignores market changes. If a business is growing rapidly or changing quickly, it might only sometimes reflect the changes in company strategy and market conditions. While historical data is useful, it may only partially predict future firm performance.

### Option Pricing Method

Option pricing can be used to assess investments, such as venture capital opportunities and other real option projects. This is a good way to evaluate projects that have future investment possibilities.

Venture-Capital Option Characteristics In the future, investors may have to decide whether these are investments they want to hold onto or unwind and pricing it as a calculation of value for an option is quite apt. Through an analysis of the value these options represent, investors can better evaluate their risks and return profiles.

Another area for improvement for the option pricing method is that of model complexity. The option pricing model is based on a number of factors, including market volatility and time considerations, which are more complex than other valuation methods. Due to the complexity of these factors, although the option pricing method is less popular its advantage in intensive study on investment projects with uncertainty and flexibility will need high financial knowledge and technical support.